There are several standard measures of course activity and teaching workload in use at UC Berkeley, including allocated student full-time equivalents (FTE), average number of primary classes taught by permanent faculty, course enrollments by course-listing unit, student credit hours (SCH) by course-listing unit, and student credit hours by instructor pay unit. Which of these you use in a given analysis depends on both what you're trying to measure, and the particular circumstances of the unit(s) involved.

The basic difference among the five metrics listed above deals with whether the data is reported under the unit that listed the course (course enrollments and SCH by course-listing unit) or under the unit that paid the instructor of the course (allocated student FTE, average classes taught, and SCH by instructor pay unit). Generally, metrics reported by course-listing unit are more useful in curriculum analyses, where you're interested in the subject matter area of the courses. Metrics reported by instructor pay unit, on the other hand, are more useful in resource allocation analyses, where you're interested in who's paying to provide courses.

This document defines each of these metrics and discusses the algorithms we use to compute them under different scenarios, while also providing an extensive set of examples.

Student Credit Hours by Instructor Pay Unit and Allocated Student FTE

Definitions of SCH by Instructor Pay Unit and Allocated Student FTE

Student Credit Hours by Instructor Pay Unit and Allocated Student FTE are metrics that give credit for course activity and teaching workload to the units that pay the instructors of courses, regardless of where those courses are listed in the catalog. We define SCH for a course as the sum of the total credit units received by the students enrolled in that course (for example, a 3-unit course with 10 students enrolled generates 30 SCH). We then define undergraduate FTE as undergraduate student credit hours divided by 15 (the standard full-time course load for undergrads). For graduate students not advanced to candidacy, we use a divisor of 12. Graduate students advanced to candidacy are counted as 1 FTE each (assigned to each student's major department) during the first six semesters of their registration, regardless of how many credit hours they take, and as 0 FTE thereafter.

Rules for Assignment of SCH by Instructor Pay Unit and Allocated Student FTE

The assignments of SCH by instructor pay unit (which we'll refer to as "pay-SCH" below) and student FTE for a course can be complicated in certain situations, but they follow a well-defined set of rules developed by the provost and vice-provosts:

  1. If the instructor for a course has only one academic pay department, and that pay department matches the course-listing department, then all pay-SCH and student FTE for that course go to the pay/course-listing department. For example, if an instructor is paid by Astronomy and teaches an Astronomy course, all pay-SCH and student FTE for that course go to Astronomy.
  2. If the instructor for a course has only one academic pay department, and it does not match the course-listing department, then all pay-SCH and student FTE for the course go to the instructor's pay department. For example, if an instructor is paid by History and teaches a Political Science course, all pay-SCH and student FTE for that course go to History.
  3. If the instructor for a course has multiple academic pay departments, and one of them matches the course-listing department, then all pay-SCH and student FTE go to the pay department that matches the course-listing unit. For example, if an instructor is paid by Civil Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and teaches a Civil Engineering course, all pay-SCH and student FTE for that course go to Civil Engineering.
  4. If the instructor has multiple academic pay departments, and the course-listing department doesn't match any of those pay departments, then we allocate the pay-SCH and student FTE among the instructor's academic pay departments based on the payroll distributions. For example, if English pays 60% of an instructor's salary and Comparative Literature pays 40%, and the instructor teaches a Rhetoric course, 60% of the pay-SCH and student FTE go to English and 40% go to Comparative Literature.
  5. If the instructor for a course is not paid by an academic department, then all pay-SCH and allocated student FTE for the course go to the course-listing department. For example, if an instructor is paid by the California Institute for Quantitative Biomedical Research and teaches an Integrative Biology course, all pay-SCH and student FTE for that course go to Integrative Biology.
  6. For team-taught courses, we split the pay-SCH and student FTE equally among all instructors who are actually teaching the course, then assign each instructor's pay-SCH and student FTE to academic departments based on the rules above.
  7. For cross-listed courses, we follow the same pay-SCH and student FTE allocation rules as for courses that aren't cross-listed. In effect, for pay-SCH and FTE allocation purposes, we treat each component of the cross-listed bundle as a separate course.

(See specific examples below.)

Again, keep in mind that for allocated student FTE, these rules apply only to undergraduates, masters/professional students, and doctoral students who are not advanced to candidacy. For doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy, we do not allocate FTE on a course-by-course basis. Instead these students count as 1 FTE in their major department(s) for their first 6 semesters, then as 0 FTE thereafter.

Examples of SCH by Instructor Pay Unit and Allocated Student FTE Assignment

SCH/FTE Example 1
For a single-instructor course, where the course-listing and academic pay departments match, all pay-SCH and student FTE go to that department:
  • ARCH 249X generated 42 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated 30 SCH and graduate students generated 12 SCH in this course, so (30 / 15) + (12 / 12) = 3 FTE;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid only by Architecture;
  • All 3 FTE and 42 pay-SCH went to the Department of Architecture, because it paid the instructor (per Rule I above)
SCH/FTE Example 2
For a single-instructor course, where course and academic pay departments don't match, all pay-SCH and student FTE go to the academic pay department:
  • GERMAN 160A generated 120 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated all 120 SCH in this course, so (120 / 15) = 8 FTE;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid only by History;
  • All 8 FTE and 120 SCH went to the Department of History, because it paid the instructor (per Rule II above).
SCH/FTE Example 3
For a course taught by a single instructor with multiple academic pay departments, where one of them matches the course-listing department, all pay-SCH and FTE go to the academic pay department that matches the course-listing department:
  • ASTRON 160 generated 120 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated all 120 SCH in this course, so (120 / 15) = 8 FTE;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid 75% by EECS and 25% by Astronomy;
  • All 8 FTE and 120 pay-SCH went to the Department of Astronomy, because it was one of the units that paid the instructor, and it offered the course (per Rule III above).
SCH/FTE Example 4
For a course taught by a single instructor with multiple academic pay departments, where none of them match the course-offering department, pay-SCH and FTE get prorated among the academic pay departments based on the payroll distributions:
  • GEOG 199 generated 60 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated all 60 SCH in this course, so (60 / 15) = 4 FTE;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid 75% by Landscape Architecture and 25% by City & Regional Planning;
  • Since neither pay department matched the course-offering department, we prorated the pay-SCH and FTE to the pay departments. The Department of Landscape Architecture got (4 * 0.75) = 3 FTE and (60 * 0.75) = 45 pay-SCH; the Department of City & Regional Planning then got (4 * 0.25) = 1 FTE and (60 * 0.25) = 15 pay-SCH (per Rule IV above).
SCH/FTE Example 5
For a course taught by a single instructor who is not paid by an academic department, all pay-SCH and FTE go to the course-listing department:
  • AST 299 generated 12 SCH;
  • Graduate students generated all 12 SCH in this course, so (12 / 12) = 1 FTE;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid only by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, which is not an academic department;
  • All 1 FTE and 12 pay-SCH therefore went to AST (Other Engineering), since it offered the course (per Rule V above).
SCH/FTE Example 6
For a team-taught course, we split the pay-SCH and FTE equally among the teaching instructors, then assign each of those pay-SCH and FTE allocations to an academic department using the same set of rules as for single-instructor courses:
  • ETH STD 103A generated 120 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated all 120 SCH in this course, so (120/15) = 8 FTE;
  • The course was team-taught by two instructors, one paid only by Ethnic Studies and the other paid jointly by Ethnic Studies and English; since the two were team-teaching, each got half the pay-SCH and FTE generated in the course: (120 / 2) = 60 pay-SCH each and (8 / 2) = 4 FTE each (per Rule VI above);
  • For the first instructor, all 60 pay-SCH and all 4 FTE went to the Department of Ethnic Studies, since it paid that instructor (per Rule I above);
  • For the second instructor, all 60 pay-SCH and all 4 FTE also went to the Department of Ethnic Studies, because it was one of the units that paid that instructor, and it offered the course (per Rule III above);
  • In total, all 120 pay-SCH and all 8 FTE thus went to the Department of Ethnic Studies.
SCH/FTE Example 7
In another example of a team-taught course, we still split the pay-SCH and FTE equally among the teaching instructors, then assign each of those pay-SCH and FTE allocations to an academic department using the same set of rules as for single-instructor courses:
    BIOLOGY 001B generated 1320 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated 1200 SCH in this course and graduate students generated 120 SCH, so (1200 / 15) + (120 / 12) = 90 FTE;
  • The course was team-taught by three instructors, one paid only by Integrative Biology, one paid only by ESPM, and the other paid only by Plant Biology; since the three were team-teaching, each got one-third of the pay-SCH and FTE generated in the course: (1320 / 3) = 440 pay-SCH and (90 / 3) = 30 FTE each (per Rule VI above);
  • For the first instructor, all 440 pay-SCH and 30 FTE went to the Department of Integrative Biology, since it paid that instructor (per Rule II above);
  • For the second instructor, all 440 pay-SCH and 30 FTE went to the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management, because it paid that instructor (per Rule II above);
  • For the third instructor, all 440 pay-SCH and 30 FTE went to the Department of Plant Biology, because it paid that instructor (per Rule II above);
  • In total, 440 pay-SCH and 30 FTE went to Integrative Biology; 440 pay-SCH and 30 FTE went to ESPM; and 440 pay-SCH and 30 FTE went to Plant Biology.
SCH/FTE Example 8
For a cross-listed course bundle taught by a single instructor, we follow the same pay-SCH and FTE allocation rules as for a single-instructor course that isn't cross-listed. In effect, we simply apply those rules separately to each course within the cross-listed bundle:
  • SCANDIN C108 and THEATER C108 were cross-listed;
  • 15 students enrolled under the SCANDIN code, generating 60 SCH;
  • 30 students enrolled under the THEATER code, generating 120 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated all 60 SCH under the SCANDIN code, so (60 / 15) = 4 FTE;
  • Undergraduates also generated all 120 SCH under the THEATER code, so (120 / 15) = 8 FTE;
  • The cross-listed bundle was taught by a single instructor paid only by Scandinavian;
  • All 60 pay-SCH and 4 FTE generated under the SCANDIN code went to the Department of Scandinavian, because it paid the instructor (per Rules VII and I above);
  • All 120 pay-SCH and 8 FTE generated under the THEATER code also went to the Department of Scandinavian, because it paid the instructor (per Rules VII and II above);
  • In total, all 180 pay-SCH and 12 FTE went to the Department of Scandinavian.
SCH/FTE Example 9
For a team-taught cross-listed course bundle, we follow the same rules we would use for separate team-taught courses. So, for each course within the bundle, we first split equally among the instructors the pay-SCH and FTE generated by that course, then we assign each of those allocations to an academic department using the same set of rules as for single-instructor courses:
  • ASTRON C290C and PHYSICS C290C were cross-listed;
  • 21 students enrolled under the ASTRON code, generating 42 SCH;
  • 6 students enrolled under the PHYSICS code, generating 12 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated 30 SCH under the ASTRON code and graduate students generated 12 SCH, so (30 / 15) + (12 / 12) = 3 FTE;
  • Graduate students generated all 12 SCH under the PHYSICS code, so (12 / 12) = 1 FTE;
  • The cross-listed bundle was taught by two instructors, one paid only by Physics, and the other paid only by the Space Sciences Lab, which is not an academic department;
  • For the first instructor (paid by Physics), half of the pay-SCH and FTE for each course within the bundle went to the Department of Physics: (42 / 2) + (12 / 2) = 27 pay-SCH and (3 / 2) + (1 / 2) = 2 FTE (per Rules VII, VI, and I above);
  • For the second instructor (not paid by an academic department), half of the pay-SCH and FTE for each course within the bundle went to the course-listing department. So, this instructor's pay-SCH and FTE allocations are:Department of Astronomy = (42 / 2) = 21 pay-SCH and (3 / 2) = 1.5 FTE (per Rules VII, VI, and V above)and Department of Physics = (12 / 2) = 6 pay-SCH and (1 / 2) = 0.5 FTE (per Rules VII, VI, and V above);
  • In total, 33 pay-SCH and 2.5 FTE went to the Department of Physics, while 21 pay-SCH and 1.5 FTE went to the Department of Astronomy.
SCH/FTE Example 10
Finally, here is a very complicated team-taught cross-listed course bundle. Notice, however, that we simply follow the same rules as above; we just have to do that several times:
  • AMERSTD C112F, ESPM C191, HISTART C189, and UGIS C136 were all cross-listed;
  • 30 students enrolled under the AMERSTD code, generating 120 SCH;
  • 15 students enrolled under the ESPM code, generating 60 SCH;
  • 13 students enrolled under the HISTART code, generating 52 SCH;
  • 3 students enrolled under the UGIS code, generating 12 SCH;
  • Undergraduates generated all 120 SCH under the AMERSTD code, so (120 / 15) = 8 FTE;
  • Undergraduates generated all 60 SCH under the ESPM code, so (60 / 15) = 4 FTE;
  • Undergraduates generated 44 SCH under the HISTART code and graduate students generated 8 SCH, so (44 / 15)+(8 / 12) = 3.6 FTE;
  • Undergraduates generated all 12 SCH under the UGIS code, so (12 / 15) = 0.8 FTE;
  • The cross-listed bundle was taught by two instructors, one paid only by Art History and the other paid 40% by ESPM and 60% by Landscape Architecture;
  • For the first instructor (paid by Art History), half of the pay-SCH and FTE for each course within the bundle went to the Department of Art History: (120 / 2) + (60 / 2) + (52 / 2) + (12 / 2) = 122 pay-SCH and (8 / 2) + (4 / 2) + (3.6 / 2) + (0.8 / 2) = 8.2 FTE (per Rules VII, VI, II, and I above);
  • The second instructor also got half of the pay-SCH and FTE from each course, because it's team-taught. Since multiple departments paid this instructor, however, the final allocation is somewhat different. The pay-SCH and FTE allocations from the AMERSTD course got split 40/60 between ESPM and Landscape Architecture (Rule IV above); that from the ESPM course went entirely to ESPM (Rule III above); that from the HISTART course got split 40/60 between ESPM and Landscape Architecture (Rule IV above); and that from the UGIS course also got split 40/60 between ESPM and Landscape Architecture (Rule IV above). So, this instructor's pay-SCH allocations were:

    ESPM = (120 / 2 * 0.4) + (60 / 2) + (52 / 2 * 0.4) + (12 / 2 * 0.4) = 66.8 pay-SCHandLandscape Arch = (120 / 2 * 0.6) + (52 / 2 * 0.6) + (12 / 2 * 0.6) = 55.2 pay-SCH;

    The FTE allocations were:

    ESPM = (8 / 2 * 0.4) + (4 / 2) + (3.6 / 2 * 0.4) + (0.8 / 2 * 0.4) = 4.48 FTEandLandscape Arch = (8 / 2 * 0.6) + (3.6 / 2 * 0.6) + (0.8 / 2 * 0.6) = 3.72 FTE;

  • In total, 122 pay-SCH and 8.2 FTE went to the Department of Art History; 66.8 pay-SCH and 4.48 FTE went to ESPM; and 55.2 pay-SCH and 3.72 FTE went to the Department of Landscape Architecture.

PRIMARY CLASSES TAUGHT BY ACTUAL PERMANENT FACULTY FTE

Definition of Primary Classes Taught by Actual Permanent Faculty FTE

For this metric, we calculate the average number of primary classes (not independent study) by course level, taught by actual (not budgeted) permanent faculty FTE. Actual permanent faculty FTE is a year-average of the Fall and Spring semesters, using payroll data from October and April, respectively. It represents only those regular permanent faculty who are available to teach (i.e., not on sabbatical) and who have non-zero faculty appointments. The permanent faculty designation includes professors, associate professors, assistant professors, lecturers with security of employment, some health sciences faculty, and supervisors of physical education, regardless of whether these faculty members also hold administrative titles (see a complete list here). Finally, for units in the College of Natural Resources, the FTE figure combines both the faculty and agronomist FTE for individuals who hold both titles.

Assignment of Primary Classes Taught by Actual Permanent Faculty FTE

To calculate the primary classes/actual permanent faculty FTE ratios, we assign the classes to the pay departments of the instructors, using the same rules as with SCH by instructor pay unit and allocated student FTE (see the rules above). For team-taught classes, instructors receive equal shares of that class when they are allocated back to the pay departments; cross-listed course bundles count as a single class in total. We group these classes by course level and only count those taught by permanent faculty.

Examples of Counting Primary Classes

Counting Primary Classes Example 1
For a single-instructor primary course section, where the instructor is paid by a single academic department, the class counts as 1 under that pay department:
  • GERMAN 160A was taught by an instructor paid only by History;
  • The Department of History received credit for 1 class, because it paid the instructor.
Counting Primary Classes Example 2
For a single-instructor primary course section, where the instructor is paid by multiple academic departments and one of them matches the course-offering department, the class counts as 1 under that department:
  • ASTRON 160 was taught by an instructor paid 75% by EECS and 25% by Astronomy;
  • The Department of Astronomy received credit for 1 class, because it was one of the units that paid the instructor, and it offered the class.
Counting Primary Classes Example 3
For a single-instructor primary course section, where the instructor is paid by multiple academic departments and none of them match the course-offering department, the class gets prorated among the academic pay departments based on the payroll distributions:
  • GEOG 199 was taught by an instructor paid 75% by Landscape Architecture and 25% by City & Regional Planning;
  • Since neither pay department matched the course-offering department, we prorated the class to the pay departments. The Department of Landscape Architecture got 0.75 of the class and the Department of City & Regional Planning got 0.25 of the class.
Counting Primary Classes Example 4
For a primary course section taught by a single instructor who is not paid by an academic department, the class counts as 1 under the course-offering department:
  • AST 299 was taught by an instructor paid only by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, which is not an academic department;
  • AST got credit for 1 class, since it was the offering department.
Counting Primary Classes Example 5
For a team-taught primary course section, we split the class equally among the teaching instructors, then assign each of those percentages to an academic department using the same set of rules as for single-instructor classes:
  • BIOLOGY 001B was team-taught by three instructors, one paid only by Integrative Biology, one paid only by ESPM, and the other paid only by Plant Biology; since the three were team-teaching, we split the class equally among them;
  • For the first instructor, the Department of Integrative Biology received credit for 0.333 of a class, since it paid that instructor;
  • For the second instructor, the Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management got credit for 0.333 of a class, because it paid that instructor;
  • And for the third instructor, the Department of Plant Biology got credit for 0.333 of a class, because it paid that instructor.
Counting Primary Classes Example 6
For a cross-listed course bundle taught by a single instructor, we prorate each component class so that the entire bundle counts as 1 class:
  • SCANDIN C108 and THEATER C108 were cross-listed and taught by a single instructor paid only by Scandinavian;
  • The Department of Scandinavian, as the instructor's pay department, got credit for 0.5 of a class, for SCANDIN C108, because it was one of two courses in this cross-listed bundle.
  • Using the same logic, Scandinavian also got credit for 0.5 of a class for THEATER C108.
  • In total, the Department of Scandinavian got credit for 1 class.
Counting Primary Classes Example 7
For a team-taught cross-listed course bundle, we count the entire bundle as 1 class and prorate it among the pay departments of the instructors (using the standard allocated FTE rules above):
  • ASTRON C290C and PHYSICS C290C were cross-listed and taught by two instructors, one paid only by Physics, and the other paid only by the Space Sciences Lab, which is not an academic department;
  • We counted the bundle as 1 class and split it equally among the instructors, so that each got credit for 0.5 of a class;
  • For the first instructor, the 0.5 of a class went to Physics, since that was the instructor's pay department;
  • For the second instructor, who was not paid by an academic department, the 0.5 of a class went to the course-offering department. Since this was a cross-listed situation, 0.25 went to Physics and 0.25 went to Astronomy;
  • In total, the Department of Physics got credit for 0.75 of a class, and the Department of Astronomy got credit for 0.25 of a class.

Course Enrollments and Student Credit Hours by Course-Listing Unit

Definition of Course Enrollments and SCH by Course-Listing Unit

Course enrollments and SCH by course-listing unit are metrics that give credit for course activity to the department that lists a given course. Because these metrics do not consider the pay department of the course's instructor, they are rarely used for budget planning or resource allocation purposes (allocated student FTE, SCH by instructor pay unit, and primary classes taught by permanent faculty typically make more sense for those kinds of analyses).

We define course enrollments as the total number of students enrolled in a given course. Student credit hours are the sum of the credit units received by the students enrolled in that course. For example:
  • ASTRON 160 is a 4-unit course;
  • 10 students enrolled in the course;
  • So the total course enrollments were 10 and the total SCH generated was the sum of 10 instances of 4 units, or 40 SCH.
The same approach applies to the relatively few courses that give individual students a variable number of units:
  • ARCH 249X is a variable-unit (1 to 4 units) course;
  • 9 students enrolled in the course, 2 for 1 unit, 1 for 2 units, 3 for 3 units, and 3 for 4 units;
  • The total course enrollments were 9 and the total SCH generated was (2*1)+(1*2)+(3*3)+(3*4) = 25 SCH.

Assignment of Course Enrollments and SCH by Course-Listing Unit

As noted above, we use course enrollments and student credit hours by course-listing unit (referred to as "list-SCH" below) as measures of course activity by subject matter area. All of the course enrollments and list-SCH generated in a given course always go to the unit (e.g., an academic department) listing that course. This rule applies to all courses, whether single-instructor, team-taught, or cross-listed, and regardless of what unit actually pays the instructor. In the case of a cross-listed course bundle, students must choose to register under one of the course-listing departments; each listing department then receives all the course enrollments and list-SCH generated by the students who enrolled under that course unit code. (See examples below.)

Examples of Course Enrollment and SCH by Course-Listing Unit Assignment

Enrollment/SCH Example 1
For a single-instructor course, all course enrollments and list-SCH go to the course-listing department:
  • ARCH 249X generated 25 SCH from 9 students;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid only by Architecture;
  • All 9 course enrollments and 25 list-SCH went to the Department of Architecture, because it offered the course.
Enrollment/SCH Example 2
For a team-taught course, all course enrollments and list-SCH still go to the course-offering department:
  • ETH STD 103A generated 112 SCH from 28 students;
  • The course was team-taught by two instructors, one paid only by Ethnic Studies and the other paid jointly by Ethnic Studies and English.
  • All 28 course enrollments and 112 list-SCH went to the Department of Ethnic Studies.
Enrollment/SCH Example 3
For a cross-listed course bundle, course enrollments and list-SCH generated by a student go to the department under whose code that student registered for the course:
  • CIV ENG C154 and CY PLAN C114 were cross-listed;
  • The course was taught by an instructor paid only by City & Regional Planning;
  • 16 students enrolled under the CIV ENG code, generating 48 SCH;
  • 30 students enrolled under the CY PLAN code, generating 90 SCH;
  • The Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering received 16 course enrollments and 48 list-SCH, while the Department of City & Regional Planning received 30 course enrollments and 90 list-SCH.

Course enrollment and list-SCH assignments for team-taught cross-lists work exactly the same as for single-instructor cross-lists. The number and pay departments of course instructors have no bearing on the assignment of course enrollments or student credit hours by course-listing unit.